Sorry, this document isn't available for viewing at this time. In the meantime, you can download the document by clicking the 'Download' button above. museal como uma modalidade de educação não escolar que . histórico-crítica e a educação escolar” [TN: Escola e democracia and Pedagogia histórico-. jovens com a escola e com o trabalho e dos sentidos que eles atribuem Escola e democracia: teorias da educação, curvatura da vara, onze teses sobre a educação Disponível em: pdf/es/v28n/a pdf>.
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Democracia antiga e moderna - M I. baspogophoba.ml - Free download as PDF File .pdf) or read online for free. Modelo de Projeto Escrito Filosoifa Na Escola Cópia. PDF | The paper discusses power relations underlying the decisions in the field of education in order to Gestión educativa y reinvención de la democracia. PDF | This paper is a critique to the Escola Ativa Program, identifies the contradictions based on the experience Defendemos a formação dos professores das escolas do campo a partir de uma política contínua e Escola e Democracia.
But, we also have social crises, that affect communities, such as the economic crisis, when the regular parameters of the functioning and assessment of the economy are significantly affected; political crisis, when the political stability of a community is significantly altered, and so forth.
But we can, also, refer to the ethical crisis, moral crisis and even crisis of values. But is it pertinent and appropriate to focus our reflection on the idea of crisis as something destabilizing and with the inherent conception of threat that it often brings? Strictly speaking, crisis is inherent to life, both individual and social. We comprehend that nothing is static, but, rather, in permanent transformation. The physical world changes, even without the intervention of man, only by the action of elements of nature, such as air, water, fire and physical particles.
A stone is molded either by the action of the wind, be it water or even fire. A biological organism grows and develops and is being transformed permanently, even after the so-called life is extinguished. In the same way, the social world is also in permanent transformation.
Societies change, the ways humans relate to each other change, how they organize, how they work, how they have fun. Yes, and these changes are often related to the development of technique and knowledge, as a result of the human development itself. Does this mean that all crises will bring positive results?
Are changes always good or, at least, desirable? Let's keep this question for later on. Previously, we must introduce the value assessment perspective.
And what is value? We can generically say that we value what is considered important, that is, that on which we make an affective investment. Thus, what we value is what we understand to be relevant and meaningful, in whatever area. And how are values determined?
Are they fixed and immutable? Of course not. They vary in the individual according both to their age, maturity, experiences, as well as their culture and social environment. How come? Thus, the smaller the social group, the greater the chance that the values of the members of these subsets will be similar. That is, more closed communities, such as orthodox religious communities, political communities, ethnic communities, are more likely to share their values, or, at least, those fundamental ones.
In military communities, where the most valued is the fulfillment of orders, the submission of the will and life itself to the common good, which is expressed by its leaders, suicide is more frequent, since self-attachment is not the value that is stimulated and defended. On the other side, in the world jewish community, despite the diaspora, which has a large support network in which individual well-being and the very survival of the community members are some of its main objectives, the suicide rate is very low the religion itself that many share, with their inherent values, reinforces this valuation.
That way, we can comprehend that, although we are able to autonomously make decisions about what is most appropriate, fair, right, our choices are rarely independent of the social environment in which we are inserted or in an individualistic perspective.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, However, these relationships would not cause individualities to be nullified, since people do not combine as gases, but require that they maintain their individualities. A few years ago, the developmental psychology group of ABRAPP Brazilian Association of Post-graduation in Psychology proposed that its members research and write articles and reflections on the question: 'Values are in crisis or is there a crisis of values?
Crise de valores ou valores em crise? In this study, they investigated, in a group of high school students in Campinas, what made them indignant. The purpose was to identify the perception of justice they had and in which scopes and situations they perceived injustices and manifested indignation at it.
The observed results were highly worrying, as most of these young people expressed outrage especially in situations where their individual interests were threatened. The perception of injustice toward the other was far short of what one would want or expect.
Is this another indication of how individualistic our society has become? That the perception of others and solidarity with them are no longer valued by our youth? The values of our society have changed and change over time, and not just those of our society. If we pull away our view of the recent facts and try to consider the changes that have occurred in the last hundred, two hundred or three hundred years, we will verify that the changes are very profound.
Luc Ferry , in his book 'Facing the Crisis', makes a brief analysis of the transformations in western societies since the industrial revolution, in order to demonstrate that the traditional values of western families have been deconstructed. And it is good that this have occurred and that it occurs. However, the changes are not so old and are not so settled like that. As an example, he mentions facts related to the feminine condition: until , in France, the wife needed to ask her husband's authorization to open a bank account; only in April , the last canton of Switzerland granted women the right to vote!
Acesso em: 21 out. There are several social actors in permanent clash with the purpose of trying to consolidate achievements, while others resist the new times.
These conflicts, however, are part of the process of social change, they promote advances and retreats, follow the transformations in social relations in general. What is important in this process is that the principles of democratic coexistence are preserved, that the policy space is neither undermined nor minimized. At this point of the reflection, we can recall the thinking of Richard Sennet , in his already classic study published with the title 'The fall of the public man: the tyrannies of intimacy'.
In it, the author defends the idea that the emptying of public life and the excessive valuation of personal life was a process that began with the fall of the 'Old Regime' and the formation of an urban and capitalist culture. For Sennet, this hypertrophy of the personal life also influenced the public life, making individual characteristics more relevant than the perspective of the social class itself.
In this sense, Ferry seems to agree with Sennet, in that he perceives that there has been a real deconstruction of the traditional values related to the Old Regime, which culminated, at least until now, in this overvaluation of consumption, as the ultimate end of the economic process.
The idea that the economy must provide the development of the common good has been subverted in favor of consumerism and individualism. Because they have been 'chosen', sin would be condemned and not forgiven with a visit to the parish priest.
Weber himself comes to the concept of disenchantment of the world by referring both to the demystification or desacralization of life in the religious sense and to the rationalization of the social world that the capitalist development promoted. When capitalism operates on the basis of competition understood both at the level of individuals, firms and even States , the need for innovation and transformation is striking, and competition is effectively the spring that drives society. Whether they are the holders of the means of production that compete for the consumer markets and the benefits of the State, or the workers who compete for better conditions of survival.
This context is very serious and worrying in countries such as ours, where social inequality reaches alarming proportions and the State, historically connives with the overvaluation of profits and the with exploitation of workers.
Not forgetting its patrimonialistic, that is, what promotes a certain blurring in the lines that separate public and private interests for the benefit of the private interests of the rulers and their allies. Acesso em: 14 nov. Thus, even if ruling elites eventually disagree with their specific interests, in general, they do what is necessary to prevent or control an eventual prevalence of workers' interests. This is a somewhat stereotyped vision, but only seeks to glimpse a perspective in which power is not easily ceded or divided by those who hold it.
In order to get closer to present times, we will appeal to the analysis that has been developed by Jurandir Freire Costa and that was presented in , in the article 'Narcissism in dark times'. In it, Costa uses what Slavoj Zizek called the cynical view of the world. This, on the other hand, took the concept borrowed from Peter Sloterdijk, in his classic 'Critique of Cynical Reason'.
For Costa, Certain patterns of social behavior in Brazil today are sufficiently stable and recurrent, so that we can affirm the existence of a particular form of fear and reaction to panic, which is the 'narcissistic culture of violence'. This culture is nourished and nurtured by social decadence and the discrediting of justice and law. In a manner that the output presented is the immediate fruition of the present; Submission to the status quo and systematic and methodical opposition to any project of change that involves social cooperation and non-violent negotiation of particular interests.
We are, thereby, identifying some of the bases that permeate our time and the crisis we are experiencing: it is not only a brazilian crisis, it is not a crisis that is simply economic, it is not a crisis of isolated values alone, but a crisis inherent in the capitalist development and the systematic transformations that occur in societies in general.
But we have some peculiarities or specificities when we look at Brazil. It is a crisis in a peripheral country, with a political and cultural development marked by poverty and the struggle for survival compatible, probably, with the development of our capitalism , with an authoritarian, undemocratic and patrimonialistic tradition.
The efficiency with which the brazilian elite, with its traditional allies in the mass media, controlled and controls the access to information and the possibilities of developing the critical and why not political?
The creativity with which they formulate and reformulate their strategies for controlling society through the educational system is extraordinary, as expressed in the current proposals of the No-Party School and the Reform of Secondary Education, that may result in a significant increase of inequalities. Thus, in the current brazilian crisis, it is more reasonable to understand it as a reaction to a small attempt to modernize the brazilian capitalism, expressed by the understanding that the expansion of the consumer market and the expansion of foreign commercial partnerships in a South-South perspective could sustain the economic development, improve the living conditions of the population and maintain the interests of the dominant elite preserved.
It seems to us to be a fact that the Workers' Party PT made a choice in the electoral contest, and that was already defended by several sectors of the brazilian left wing since the fight against dictatorship: the formation of a wider democratic front to conquer the federal power and govern seeking to reconcile and negotiate the different interests.
In this perspective, the PT forged an alliance with the Liberal Party, which ensured the candidate for vice president, and the rest is history, with the attraction of the one who always tried to present himself as the core in brazilian politics, namely, the Party of the Brazilian Democratic Movement PMDB.
But this same elite seems to prefer oligarchic practices to liberal practices, not realizing that deep social inequality is not good for today's capitalism. We know, today, that many of the practices adopted by segments of the PT for some, or by its main leaders, for others, have repeated the corrupt practices that have always characterized much of the national political practice.
In the name of the 'wide societal arc', it gave way to points and questions that would not be ethically acceptable. Previous governments have always behaved like that, but punishments, effectively, only emerged when one tried to ignore the wider political game that was being played, as in the case of the Collor government. But we must also ask ourselves: have the ethically questionable behaviors of important segments of the PT been in fact the determinants of their downfall and true demoralization?
It is still early to have a broader understanding of the issue, but it seems to us that objective international geopolitical issues may also be playing a central role in this dispute: the discovery of oil in the brazilian pre-salt layers in a conjecture when wars are systematically declared for energy disputes, as occurs, for example, in Iraq, Iran, Kuwait, Crimea and Ukraine, among many others ; the search for really independence in foreign policy, as well as in economic actions; alliance with the other Brics countries Russia, India, China and South Africa in building an alternative to the World Bank, just to name a few.
After all, if the interests of the national elites were in fact not being significantly affected by the PT governments, why did they abandon those who treated them so well for almost ten years?
Perhaps the understanding of the concept of coloniality will help us to better understand this situation. Ecuador Debate.
The model of colonization meant not only economic domination, but, also, cultural domination. Escola e Democracia: Autores Associados, Dermeval Saviani.
Esta Teoria de Tradicional, a Pedagogia Tecnicista e a Escola Nova, consideradas por ele as mais significativas, Escola e Democracia. Dermeval Saviani: Dermeval Saviani classifica as teorias educacionais em dois grupos: Este foi. Numa forma moderna de Resenha de: Resenha do Livro: Escola e Democracia Acesso em: Fichamento - Escola e Democracia - scribd. Autores Associados, , p.
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